In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and suffered a defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut — However the British finally won in the Mesopotamian Campaign with the capture of Baghdad in March
It strained Iraqi political and social life, and led to severe economic dislocations.
Viewed from a historical perspective, the outbreak of hostilities in was, in part, just another phase of the ancient Persian-Arab conflict that had been fueled by twentieth-century border disputes. The Iran-Iraq War was multifaceted and included religious schisms, border disputes, and political differences.
Conflicts A history of iraq to the outbreak of hostilities ranged from centuries old Sunni-versus-Shia and Arab-versus-Persian religious and ethnic disputes, to a personal animosity between Saddam Hussein and Ayatollah Khomeini.
Above all, Iraq launched the war in an effort to consolidate its rising power in the Arab world and to replace Iran as the A history of iraq Persian Gulf state. Iraq and Iran had engaged in border clashes for many years and had revived the dormant Arvand-Roud Shatt al Arab waterway dispute in Iraq claimed the kilometer channel up to the Iranian shore as its territory, while Iran insisted that the line running down the middle of the waterway negotiated last inwas the official border.
The Iraqis, especially the Baath leadership, regarded the treaty as merely a truce, not a definitive settlement. Khomeini, bitter over his expulsion from Iraq in after fifteen years in An Najaf, vowed to avenge Shia victims of Baathist repression.
Baghdad became more confident, however, as it watched the once invincible Imperial Iranian Army disintegrate, as most of its highest ranking officers were executed. In Khouzestan Arabistan to the IraqisIraqi intelligence officers incited riots over labor disputes, and in the Kurdish region, a new rebellion caused the Khomeini government severe troubles.
As the Baathists planned their military campaign, they had every reason to be confident. Not only did the Iranians lack cohesive leadership, but the Iranian armed forces, according to Iraqi intelligence estimates, also lacked spare parts for their American-made equipment.
Baghdad, on the other hand, possessed fully equipped and trained forces. Morale was running high. With the Iraqi military build-up in the late s, Saddam Hussein had assembled an army ofmen, augmented by 2, tanks and aircraft.
In addition, the area across the Arvand-Roud Shatt al Arab posed no major obstacles, particularly for an army equipped with Soviet river-crossing equipment.
Iraqi commanders correctly assumed that crossing sites on the Kharkheh and Karoun rivers were lightly defended against their mechanized armor divisions; moreover, Iraqi intelligence sources reported that Iranian forces in Khouzestan, which had formerly included two divisions distributed among Ahvaz, Dezful, and Abadan, now consisted of only a number of ill-equipped battalion-sized formations.
Tehran was further disadvantaged because the area was controlled by the Regional 1st Corps headquartered at Bakhtaran formerly Kermanshahwhereas operational control was directed from the capital.
For Iraqi planners, the only uncertainty was the fighting ability of the Iranian air force, equipped with some of the most sophisticated American-made aircraft. Despite the execution of key air force commanders and pilots, the Iranian air force had displayed its might during local riots and demonstrations.
The air force was also active in the wake of the failed United States attempt to rescue American hostages in April This show of force had impressed Iraqi decision makers to such an extent that they decided to launch a massive pre-emptive air strike on Iranian air bases in an effort similar to the one that Israel employed during the June Arab-Israeli War.
The fall of the moderate Bazargan government in latehowever, and the rise of Islamic militants preaching an expansionist foreign policy soured Iraqi-Iranian relations. The principal events that touched off the rapid deterioration in relations occurred during the spring of In response, the Iraqis immediately rounded up members and supporters of Ad Dawah and deported to Iran thousands of Shias of Iranian origin.
In Septemberborder skirmishes erupted in the central sector near Qasr-e Shirin, with an exchange of artillery fire by both sides. A few weeks later, Saddam Hussein officially abrogated the treaty between Iraq and Iran and announced that the Arvand-Roud Shatt al Arab was returning to Iraqi sovereignty.
Baghdad originally planned a quick victory over Tehran.
This revolt did not materialize, however, and the Arab minority remained loyal to Tehran. Their aim was to destroy the Iranian air force on the ground--a lesson learned from the Arab-Israeli June War. Within hours, Iranian F-4 Phantoms took off from the same bases, successfully attacked strategically important targets close to major Iraqi cities, and returned home with very few losses.
Simultaneously, six Iraqi army divisions entered Iran on three fronts in an initially successful surprise attack, where they drove as far as eight kilometers inland and occupied 1, square kilometers of Iranian territory.
As a diversionary move on the northern front, an Iraqi mechanized mountain infantry division overwhelmed the border garrison at Qasr-e Shirin, a border town in Bakhtaran formerly known as Kermanshahan Province, and occupied territory thirty kilometers eastward to the base of the Zagros Mountains.
This area was strategically significant because the main Baghdad-Tehran highway traversed it. On the central front, Iraqi forces captured Mehran, on the western plain of the Zagros Mountains in Ilam Province, and pushed eastward to the mountain base.
Mehran occupied an important position on the major north-south road, close to the border on the Iranian side. The main thrust of the attack was in the south, where five armored and mechanized divisions invaded Khouzestan on two axes, one crossing over the Arvand-Roud Shatt al Arab near Basra, which led to the siege and eventual occupation of Khorramshahr, and the second heading for Sousangerd, which had Ahvaz, the major military base in Khouzestan, as its objective.
Iraqi armored units easily crossed the Arvand-Roud Shatt al Arab waterway and entered the Iranian province of Khouzestan. Dehloran and several other towns were targeted and were rapidly occupied to prevent reinforcement from Bakhtaran and from Tehran. By mid-October, a full division advanced through Khouzestan headed for Khorramshahr and Abadan and the strategic oil fields nearby.
Other divisions headed toward Ahvaz, the provincial capital and site of an air base.Nov 09, · During the eight years between Iraq’s formal declaration of war on September 22, , and Iran’s acceptance of a cease-fire with effect on July 20, , at the very least half a million and.
The rd Airborne Brigade has a along and distinguished history of over 45 years of service spanning almost 88 years. The Brigade originally was activated in as the rd Infantry Brigade and assigned to the 87th Infantry. Jul 20, · Find out more about the history of Iran-Iraq War, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and more.
Get all the facts on torosgazete.com The Modern History of Iraq is a remarkably readable account of the emergence of contemporary Iraq, placing in historical perspective the crises and upheavals that continue to afflict the country.
This text weaves together several important themes, including the search for a national identity, the struggle to achieve social and economic Author: Ibrahim Al-Marashi. The history of the Jews in Iraq (Hebrew: יְהוּדִים בָּבְלִים , Babylonian Jews, Yehudim Bavlim, Arabic: اليهود العراقيون al-Yahūd al-ʿIrāqiyyūn), is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity c.
BC. Iraqi Jews constitute one of the world's oldest and most historically significant Jewish communities. In accordance with the Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq" (Jumhūrīyyat al-'Irāq). History. Pre-historic era. Between 65, BC and 35, BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological.